Chandrayaan 2 Mission Information Speed, System, Team, Etc
Chandrayaan-2 concerning this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is India’s second satellite exploration mission when Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian space analysis Organisation (ISRO), the mission was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). It consists of a lunar orbiter, lander, and rover, all developed in India. The main scientific objective is to map the location and abundance of lunar water.
The lander and the rover will land in a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at a latitude of about 70° south. The wheeled rover can go the satellite surface and can perform on-the-spot analysis. It can relay data to Earth through the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and lander, which will fly on the same launch.
Launch of Chandrayaan-2 was originally scheduled for 14 July 2019 at 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 2:51 IST) but was called off due to a technical snag noticed while filling the cryogenic engine of the rocket with helium at around 56 minutes(56 minutes 24 seconds) before launch.It was launched on 22 July 2019 14:43 IST (09:13 UTC) from the Satish Dhawan House Centre at Sriharikota in the Nellore district of the province.
A successful landing would make India the fourth country to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, after the space agencies of the USSR, USA, and China. If successful, Chandrayaan-2 will be the southernmost lunar landing, aiming at 67°S or 70°S latitude.
The mission is planned to fly a geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) with an approximate lift-off mass of three,850 kg (8,490 lb) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island. As of June 2019, the mission has an allotted price of ₹978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which incorporates ₹603 crore for space phase and ₹375 crore as launch costs on GSLV Mk III. Chandrayaan-2 stack would be initially put in an Earth parking orbit of 170 km perigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle. It will then perform orbit-raising operations followed by trans-lunar injection using its own power.
Rover ‘Pragyan’ mounted on the ramp of ‘Vikram’ lander
The mission’s lander is termed Vikram (Sanskrit: विक्रम, lit. ‘Valour’) Pronunciation (help•info) named after Vikram Sarabhai (1919-1971), who is widely regarded as the father of the Indian space programme.
The Vikram lander can detach from the orbiter and descend to a satellite orbit of thirty kilometres × one hundred kilometres (19 mi × 62 mi) using its 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines. It will then perform a comprehensive check of all its on-board systems before attempting a soft landing, deploy the rover, and perform scientific activities for approximately 15 days. The approximate combined mass of the lander and rover is 1,471 kg (3,243 lb).
The preliminary configuration study of the lander was completed in 2013 by the Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad. The lander’s propulsion system consists of eight 50 N (11 lbf) thrusters for attitude control and five 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines derived from ISRO’s 440 N (99 lbf) Liquid Apogee Motor. Initially, the lander design employed four main liquid engines, but a centrally mounted engine was added to handle new requirements of having to orbit the Moon before landing. The additional engine is expected to mitigate upward draft of lunar dust during the soft landing. Vikram can safely land on slopes up to 12°.
Some associated technologies include a high resolution camera, Lander Hazard Detection Avoidance Camera (LHDAC), Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC), an 800 N throttleable liquid main engine, attitude thrusters, Ka-band radio measuring system (KaRA), Laser Inertial Reference & Accelerometer Package (LIRAP), and the software needed to run these components. Engineering models of the lander began undergoing ground and aerial tests in late Oct 2016, in Challakere in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka. ISRO created roughly 10 craters on the surface to help assess the ability of the lander’s sensors to select a landing site.
• Gross lift-off mass: 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)
• Propellant mass: 845 kg (1,863 lb)
• Dry mass: 626 kg (1,380 lb)
The mission’s rover is termed Pragyan The rover’s mass is about 27 kg (60 lb) and will operate on solar power. The rover will move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meters on the lunar surface at the rate of 1 cm per second, performing on-site chemical analysis and sending the data to the lander, which will relay it to the Earth station. For navigation, the rover uses:
• Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision: two 1 megapixel, monochromatic NAVCAMs in front of the rover will provide the ground control team a 3D view of the surrounding terrain, and help in path-planning by generating a digital elevation model of the terrain. IIT Kanpur contributed to the development of the subsystems for light-based map generation and motion planning for the rover.
• Control and motor dynamics: the rover has a rocker-bogie suspension system and six wheels, each driven by independent brushless DC electric motors. Steering is accomplished by the differential speed of the wheels or skid steering.
The expected in operation time of Pragyan rover is one day or around fourteen Earth days however its power grid contains a solar-powered sleep/wake-up cycle enforced, which could result in longer service time than planned.
ISRO elect eight scientific instruments for the equipment, four for the lander, and two for the rover. While it was initially reported that NASA and ESA would participate in the mission by providing some scientific instruments for the orbiter, ISRO in 2010 had clarified that due to weight restrictions it will not be carrying foreign payloads on this mission. However, in an update simply a month before the launch of the mission, a small laser retroreflector from NASA was added to the lander’s payload to help scientists measure exact distances to the Moon and lunar libration.
• Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) from ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore
• Solar X-ray monitor (XSM) from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad for mapping major elements present on the lunar surface.
• Dual Frequency L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for probing the first few tens of metres of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents, including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the Moon.
• Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.
• Chandrayaan-2 Atmospheric Compositional Explorer 2 (ChACE-2) Quadrupole Mass Analyzer from Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere.
• Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for preparing a three-dimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology.
• Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive Ionosphere and Atmosphere – Dual Frequency Radio Science experiment (RAMBHA-DFRS) by SPL
• Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) by SAC for scouting a hazard free spot for landing. Imagery from OHRC can later facilitate prepare Digital elevation model of satellite surface.
Vikram lander payload
• Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) Seismometer by LEOS for studying Moon-quakes near the landing site
• Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) Thermal probe for estimating the thermal properties of the lunar surface
• RAMBHA-LP Langmuir probe for measuring the density and variation of lunar surface plasma
• A laser retroreflector array (LRA) by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for precise measurements of the Earth-Moon distance and lunar libration.
Pragyan rover payload
• Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) from Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore.
• Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscopy (APXS) from PRL, Ahmedabad.
The list below lists most key scientists and engineers who were instrumental to the development and launch of Chandrayaan-2 project:
• Muthaya Vanitha – Project Director, Chandrayaan-2
• Ritu Karidhal – Mission Director, Chandrayaan-2
In yet another lunar mission, India launches Chandrayaan-2, which will be vested with the task of exploring the darker side of the moon. Chandrayaan-2 is set to be launched onboard the GSLV MK III from the Satish Dhawan Space Center located at Sriharikota, the flagship spaceport of India on July 15. Here are some unknown and interesting facts about Chandrayaan-2.
Facts about the launch
Chandrayaan-2 becomes the second lunar mission of India. Once the launch becomes successful, India will become the fourth country on the earth to achieve a soft landing on the moon.
Explore the southern polar region of the moon
The sole objective of Chandrayaan is to explore the south-polar region of the moon, which has not been charted to date. The mission Chandrayaan-2 is expected to increase our understanding of the earth’s sole natural satellite. The discoveries that are possible through this mission is expected to benefit India in particular and humanity at large.
Advantages of sending Chandrayaan-2 to the moon
Moon is the nearest space object to the earth. Moon can be used something like attest bed for the space launch and the knowledge gained out of Chandrayaan-2 mission can give enough insights on the deep-space missions India can attempt in the future to distant spatial bodies.
Where it will land
Chandrayaan-2 will try to soft-land the rover Pragyan and lander Vikram in a high plain region of the moon located in between two craters called Manzinus C and Simpelius N at a latitude of 70 degrees south.
Some special facts about Chandrayan-2
Chandrayaan-2 is that the 1st ever space mission by any country to explore the South Pole of the moon. Chandrayaan-2 is fully powered by home-grown technology.
What the mission intends to do
The mission forming part of Chandrayaan-2 will help the country and humanity accumulate a better understanding of how the moon originated and evolved. The mission will perform some topographical studies in a detailed manner in addition to some mineralogical analysis, and a line of other kinds of experiments on the moon’s surface. Possibly, we could gain some valuable inputs on the kind of rocks found on the moon and the presence of water molecules on the moon’s surface.
What is the implication of the mission for ISRO
This mission will help the ISRO surpass the aspirations among the international community. The mission can also inspire a set of future scientists, explorers, and engineers of extraordinary skills and talents. The entire mission will succeed in expanding India’s space footprint.
Timeline of the mission
Lander Vikram is scheduled to land on the South Pole of the moon on September 6, 2019. Following this, Rover will start doing some experiments on the moon’s surface for a period of 14 earth days or what is known as one lunar day. The mission of Orbiter will extend for a period of one year.
Made in India
GSLV MK III is the most powerful launcher India will be using for the mission Chandrayaan-2. This launcher is fully designed and manufactured in India.